Financial pressure in Congress has caused substantial changes in federal taxation. Here is a list of those changes, sectioned off by who the changes will most likely affect.
Medical and dental expenses: You can only deduct medical and dental expenses that exceed 10 percent of your adjusted gross income, or 7.5 percent if you are 65 or over.
Standard mileage rates on business use, medical care use, and moving: Rate of remuneration for using your vehicle for business increased to $0.565 per mile. Medical care — $0.24; Moving expense: $0.14
Adoption credit or exclusion: The maximum adoption credit or exclusion for employer-provided adoption benefits is increased to $12,970 for taxpayers with modified adjusted gross income under $234,580
Increase in employee’s share of payroll tax: Employees tax withholdings for social security will increase from 4.2 percent to 6.2 percent up to the social security wage limit of $113,700. Self-employed taxpayers will be subject to the same increase, from 10.4 percent to 12.4 percent. The deduction for self-employment tax has been restored to 50 percent.
The Good News (mostly for lower income taxpayers):
Earned income tax credit (EITC): The earned income tax credit (EITC) has been extended to include 2013.
Alternative minimum tax (AMT): Exemption amount increased to $51,900 ($80,800 if married filing jointly, widower, or $40,400 if married filing separately. If exempt, you need not pay the Alternate Minimum Tax (AMT).
Lifetime learning credit income limits: To qualify for a lifetime learning credit, modified adjusted gross income must be less than $63,000 or $127,000 if married filing jointly
Retirement savings contribution credit income limits increased: Claiming this credit is only available to individuals with modified adjusted gross income less than $29,500, married filing jointly $59,000, or head of household $44,250
In the Middle
Foreign earned income exclusion: Max exclusion has increased to $97,600
Income limits for excluding education savings bond interest increased: Excluding interest is now only possible if your modified adjusted gross income is less than $87,700 or $142,050 if married filing jointly.
Personal exemption: Personal exemption is increased to $3,900 for taxpayers with AGI less than $250,000 if single, $150,000 if married filing singly, $275,000 if head of household, and $300,000 if married filing jointly.
Itemized deductions: taxpayers with AGIs over $300,000 are limited in itemized deductions to $275,000 if head of household, $250,000 if single, and $150,000 if married filing separately may be reduced.
High Income taxpayers
Additional Medicare Tax: Depending on your income level and tax filing status, you could be responsible for an additional .9 percent tax for Medicare.
The income thresholds are printed below:
Married filing jointly
Married filing separately
Head of household
Net Investment Income Tax: An additional Net Investment Income Tax (NIIT) of 3.8 percent could be levied on the lesser of either: 1) net investment income; or 2) the excess of your modified adjusted gross income.